Nonfarm income, inequality, and poverty in rural Egypt and Jordan

by Richard H. Adams

Publisher: World Bank, Financial Sector Strategy and Policy Dept. in Washington, D.C

Written in English
Published: Downloads: 817
Share This

Places:

  • Egypt.,
  • Jordan.

Subjects:

  • Income -- Egypt.,
  • Income -- Jordan.,
  • Equality -- Egypt.,
  • Equality -- Jordan.,
  • Poverty -- Egypt.,
  • Poverty -- Jordan.,
  • Unskilled labor -- Egypt.,
  • Unskilled labor -- Jordan.

Edition Notes

StatementRichard H. Adams, Jr.
SeriesPolicy research working paper ;, 2572, Policy research working papers (Online) ;, 2572.
ContributionsWorld Bank. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network. Poverty Division.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsHG3881.5.W57
The Physical Object
FormatElectronic resource
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL3669221M
LC Control Number2002616027

  The book aims at elucidating this puzzle and providing a better understanding of income inequality in Egypt in its various dimensions. On May 5th, , the World Bank launches its new book “Inside Inequality in the Arab Republic of Egypt: Facts and Perceptions across People, Time and Space” in Cairo, Egypt. Non-farm income and poverty. For the present study, the criterion of $2 per day per person (equal to Rs. in Pakistan in ) as described by (GoP, ) for poverty line calculations was other words, a household was considered as poor if the per capita household income was less than Rs while for non-poor households, the per capita income had to be equal or more than Rs.   Research shows that, compared to most poor countries, Egypt’s income inequality was low at this time, was not worsening, and its poverty rate was actually falling. Egypt . agriculture, or whether it was due importantly to the growth in rural non-farm sources of income. In addition, as rural income inequality increased from a Gini of to over the period, question arises as to whether this may have been due to the rising share of non-farm incomes in the total income of rural households.

Egypt, Arab Rep. Country Indicators (millions) Notes: International Poverty Line has a value of US$ PPP Lower Middle Income Class Poverty Line has a value of US$ PPP Upper Middle Income Class Poverty Line has a value of US$ PPP. Explore Poverty and Equity Data by: OR. OR. In Sources of Income Inequality and Poverty in Rural Pakistan, Research Report , Richard H. Adams, Jr. and Jane J. He address these issues by analyzing longitudinal data from households in four districts in rural Pakistan (Faisalabad and Attock in Punjab Province, Badin in Sind Province, and Dir in North-West Frontier Province). The past ten years for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region countries have registered an extreme deterioration in at least one measure of social and economic welfare: earnings inequality, unemployment, and poverty. The combination of slow economic growth, population explosion, and decline in labor productivity led to the reversal of the economic gains achieved during the economic. Egypt The source for global inequality data. Open access, high quality wealth and income inequality data developed by an international academic consortium.

The mixed findings on the effect of non-farm income on rural income inequality suggest the need to examine the non-farm sector in different country contexts (Canagarajah et al., ). Adams (), for instance, investigates the impact of different sources of income on poverty and inequality in rural Egypt and Jordan.   Adams () on his study at Egypt and Jordan, find that non-farm income has a Siti Hadijah Che Mat et al. / Procedia Economics and Finance 1 () – greater impact on poverty and inequality. The poor receive almost 60 percent of their income from non-farm sources in rural Egypt, while in rural Jordan they receive less. This paper uses nationally representative household survey data of to examine the effect of non-farm income on income inequality in rural Ghana. Employing the Gini-decomposition technique, results indicate that aggregate non-farm income increased income inequality among rural households in Ghana. In terms of its components, while non-farm self-employment income reduced income inequality. His main areas of professional interest are income and asset inequality, poverty, growth, child well-being, human development, transition economics, and institutional economics. He has authored/edited 18 books, and written journal articles and working papers.

Nonfarm income, inequality, and poverty in rural Egypt and Jordan by Richard H. Adams Download PDF EPUB FB2

Nonfarm income has a greater impact on poverty and inequality in Egypt than in Jordan. In rural Egypt the poor receive almost 60 percent of their income from nonfarm sources, while in rural Jordan they receive less than inequality percent.

He concludes: 1) Nonfarm income has different impacts on poverty and inequality in the two countries. In Egypt the poor (those in the lowest quintile) receive almost 60 percent of their per capita income from nonfarm income. In Jordan the poor receive less than 20 percent of their income from nonfarm income.

sources of income—including nonfarm income—on poverty and inequality in rural Egypt and Jordan. While nonfarm income reduces poverty and improves income distribution in Egypt, in Jordan nonfarm income goes mainly to the rich and and poverty in rural Egypt and Jordan book tends to increase rural inequality.

The reasons for this difference have to do with land. In Egypt land is highly. Applying decomposition analysis to two new nationally representative sets of household data from Egypt and Jordan, the author examines how different sources of income--including nonfarm.

Applying decomposition analysis to two new nationally representative sets of household data from Egypt and Jordan, the author examines how different sources of income--including nonfarm income--affect inequality in rural income.

He concludes: 1) Nonfarm income has different impacts on poverty and inequality in the two by: Nonfarm Income, Inequality, Nonfarmincomehasa greater impact on poverty and Poverty in Rural Egypt and inequality in Egypt than and Jord anc an in Jordan. In rural Egypt the j orc L an poor receive almost 60 percent of their income from Richard H.

Adams, Jr. nonfarm sources, while in rural Jordan they receive less than 20 percent. The reason. rural households, and served as an engine of growth for rural areas. Adams () on his study at Egypt and Jordan, find that non-farm income has a greater impact on poverty and inequality.

The poor receive almost 60 percent of their income from non-farm sources in rural Egypt, while in rural Jordan they receive less than 20 percent.

Adams Richard H Jr () Nonfarm income, inequality and land in rural Egypt. Econ Dev Cult Change 50(2)– CrossRef Google Scholar Assam Human Development Report (). Poverty Measures from Egypt Households Income, Expenditure and Consumption Survey (HIECS) in /09 and in the Study Villages Mean Per Capita Consumption/Year within Quintiles and by Poverty Status in Study Villages, in Total Egypt, and in Total Rural Egypt Inequality Measures from Egypt Households Income.

social transfers buffer income inequality by bringing down income inequality measures by 4 percentage points Inequality between governorates is markedly higher than inequality between urban and rural areas Jordan achieved nearly universal coverage of water services, without differences across place of residence, nor income quintile Jordan.

Nonfarm income is an inequality-reducing source of income in a land-scarce setting such as rural Egypt because inadequate land pushes poorer households out of agriculture and into the nonfarm sector.

The author uses household-level data from a nationally representative survey to analyze the impact of nonfarm income on income inequality in rural.

Richard H. Adams, Jr. Nonfarm Income, Inequality, and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan 2 Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Barbara Kotschwar, Trade Policy, Standards, and Development and John S. Wilson in Central America 4 Jerry Skees, Stephanie Gover, Panos Developing Rainfall-Based Index Insurance.

This is in line with Adams () and Van den Berg and Kumbi (), who reported that farm income contributes more than non-farm income to inequality in rural Egypt and Ethiopia.

The relative. He concludes: 1) Nonfarm income has different impacts on poverty and inequality in the two countries. In Egypt the poor (those in the lowest quintile) receive almost 60 percent of their per capita income from nonfarm income.

In Jordan the poor receive less than 20 percent of their income from nonfarm income. So nonfarm income decreases inequality in Egypt and increases it in Jordan. 2) Access. This article uses decomposition analysis to examine the impact of different sources of income (including nonfarm income) on poverty and inequality in rural Egypt and Jordan.

Conclusions: While nonfarm income reduces poverty and improves income distribution in Egypt, in Jordan nonfarm income goes mainly to the rich and thus tends to increase rural inequality.

The reasons for this difference. Nonfarm income, inequality, and poverty in rural Egypt and. distribution on rural income inequality by analyzing the results of a new, nationally-representative household survey in Egypt. The paper seeks to make three contributions.

First, it uses decomposition techniques to pinpoint the contribution of five different sources of rural income – including nonfarm income – to overall rural inequality. Adams, Richard H., "Nonfarm income, inequality, and poverty in rural Egypt and Jordan," Policy Research Working Paper SeriesThe World Bank.

Adams, Richard H., "Self-targeted subsidies - the distributional impact of the Egyptian food subsidy system," Policy Research Working Paper SeriesThe World Bank. H (). Non-farm Income, Inequality and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan. World Bank, DC Barret, C. Asset, Activity and Income Diversification among African Agriculturists: Some Practical Lessons.

Department of Applied Economics and. The University of Chicago Press. Books Division. Chicago Distribution Center.

Nonfarm income, inequality, and poverty in rural Egypt and Jordan (Английский) Подробнее + The rural economy of developing countries has long been regarded as synonymous with agriculture but in recent years this view has begun to change.

Research for this paper was financed by a special grant from "The Poverty, Inequality, and Socioeconomic Performance Thematic Group" at the World Bank. Summary This paper uses household- level data from a nationally-representative survey to analyze the impact of nonfarm income on income inequality in rural Egypt.

Policymakers interested in reducing poverty and improving income distribution in rural Egypt should focus on nonfarm income, which not only accounts for almost 60 percent of total income for the rural poor but also favorably affects income distribution.

Nonfarm income is an inequality-reducing source of income in a land-scarce setting such as rural Egypt because inadequate land "pushes" poorer.

Nonfarm Income, Inequality, and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan. August, Egypt, Jordan. nationally representative sets of household data from Egypt and Jordan, the author examines how different sources of.

the authors study the distribution of nonfarm income in rural China. First, they assume nonfarm income as an exogenous. Adams () on his study at Egypt and Jordan, find that nonfarm income has a greater impact on poverty and inequality.

The poor receive almost 60 percent of their income from nonfarm sources in rural Egypt, while in rural Jordan they receive less than 20 percent. reducing rural poverty in Egypt. Building on Adams () I use the same household survey data to study the structure and the determinants of rural household income.

Adams’ key findings where that policy makers must pay more attention to non-farm income if they want to reduce poverty and improve income inequality. rich households, non-farm income can reduce rural inequality.3 China is a good candidate for a country case study that examines the impacts of non-farm activity on rural income inequality.

The objective of this paper is to examine whether and why non-farm activity reduces overall household income inequality in rural areas of two Chinese. Nonfarm income, inequality, and poverty in rural Egypt and Jordan (الانكليزية) الخلاصة. The rural economy of developing countries has long been regarded as synonymous with agriculture but in recent years this view has begun to change.

The non‐farm employment and microenterprise programmes now in vogue will not necessarily resolve rural income inequality problems and attendant social tensions nor automatically benefit the poor. (ii) Policymakers should be worried by substantial evidence of poor people's inability to overcome important entry barriers to many non‐farm.

Income inequality is measured by five indicators, such as the Gini coefficient and S90/S10, among others.

Poverty rate: The poverty rate is the ratio of the number of people (in a given age group) whose income falls below the poverty line; taken as half the median household income of the total population.

Nonfarm income, inequality, and land in Rural Egypt. Richard Adams (). NoPolicy Research Working Paper Series from The World Bank Abstract: The author uses household-level data from a nationally representative survey to analyze the impact of nonfarm income on income inequality in rural Egypt.

After pinpointing the importance of nonfarm income to the rural poor, the author decomposes.Song () argue that the distribution of non-farm income is less egalitarian compared to that of farm income in China, based on a country-level survey. Hussain et al. () draw a similar conclusion about the unequal distribution of non-farm income and point out that non-farm income contributes to the rise in rural inequality.Role of non-farm sector was found to be vital with high share in household income (37%).

Also, lower values for poverty head count was found for the household with some form of non-farm employment (on average %) compared with those without it (on average %). Gini index for household with and without non-farm employment also revealed income-inequality to be higher among the households.